/ Vol 3 Issue 1

JOURNAL OF PEOPLE’S STUDIES - Volume 3, Issue 1

Issue Details

Journal of People’s Studies
ISSN 2455-3115 (Online)

Volume 3, Issue 1
© Journal of People’s Studies, November 2017

LIST OF CONTENTS

Editorial

Section 1 Thematic Articles
Disarticulation of the female subjectivity in the everyday life
A case of study in Puebla, Mexico - Maria Dolores Arteaga-Villamil
Social exclusion of Mang Garudi community in Maharashtra
A descriptive analysis - Raju Adagale Pramodini Naik
Understanding ethnic identities in urban spaces in India -Shreya Urvashi
Artisanal and small-scale gold mining in Colombia
Noise, geographic constructions of embodied civic identities, and the unanticipated consequences of modernising socio-technical activities - Mateo S. Pimentel
Religion, caste and urbanism in India - Sanjay Jothe
The tyranny of identity: Analysing gender identity through folktales - Abigail Shannon Kellogg

Section 2 Special article
Women’s empowerment: Perception of Dalit women - Sheetal Dinkar Kamble

Section 3 Document
Against the frenzy of religions: for justice, peace, love and harmony - Susmita Pradhan

Section 4 Review
Fabricated! - Natasha Khan & Nilanjani Tandon

Dussehra Diwali Versus Vijyadashmi and Deepdan Utsava - Kuldip Kumar

Download

Editorial

Editorial

In today´s world we can witness how identity discourses polarise the political arena, be it in the US or Great Britain or France or India or Thailand or Venezuela. Sharpening of such polarised formations could be observed in the construct of social and class formation based on social status, creed, colour, gender, sexual preferences, religion or faith, region, language, development ethics and identity. These aspects get reflected in social spaces, economic relations, work places, religious orders, cultural formations and patterns of governance.

Julia Guenther

Goldy George

Section 1 - Thematic Articles

Disarticulation of the female subjectivity in the everyday life

This paper is focused on understanding the formation of female subjectivity within the transition from childhood to adolescence through the interconnection between class and gender. These hierarchically ordered relationships consolidate positions that place the adolescents as receptacles of the social imaginary of contemporary femininity models.

Through the analysis of the discussions obtained from a focus group of adolescents from upper middle class households in Puebla City (Mexico), I observe how this transitional stage unveils a social reality full of conditionings and subjectivities, which are both structured and structuring.

The range of life experiences narrated by the participants disclose the close tie between class and gender and this gives us the opportunity to recognise how social relationships are established and how the adolescents face them in their everyday life. Further, these relationships are also crucial for understanding aspects on how these social relationships operate as a framework of shared values within a specific social group.

Maria Dolores Arteaga-Villamil

The author is an independent researcher focused on issues of about gender, class, and family transformations in contemporary Mexico. She holds a PhD in Social and Cultural Anthropology (University of Barcelona) and she could be reached at madoarvi@gmail.com

Keywords: Female subjectivity, adolescence, class, gender, family dynamics.

Social exclusion of Mang Garudi community in Maharashtra

Caste is a source of power and its position in social hierarchy plays very vital role especially while dealing with inclusive development. Identity of Mang Garudi as a Scheduled Caste is dim in socio-political domain. Essentially, labelling theory, Senian approach to social exclusion and Ambedkar’s philosophical roots of equity and social justice have immensely been the important proponents to understand the exclusion phenomena. Despite being categorised as a Scheduled Caste (SC) in Maharashtra, it has not drawn the attention of social science and therefore remains an unexplored social group. Their identity is still dim in socio-political domain.

The objective of this present article is to comprehend Mang Garudi’s socio-economic backwardness leading to the exclusion. The article shows that the socio-economic backwardness drags the Mang Garudi into the exclusionary domain of society. Their language, religious and customary practices and taboos reveals the distinct identity. Beef-eating is part of their regular food habit and pattern. Practices such as Devsasi, Jogava and Potraj are still continued. Patriarchy is extremely dominant within and outside the community. The caste panchayat plays a significant role while dealing with questions of justice. They are recipients of smaller quantity of benefits of government schemes. Dominantly based on quantitative approach, this paper is a descriptive analysis.

Raju Adagale

He works as an Assistant Professor with BARTI, Pune. He holds a PhD from Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS), Mumbai. He could be reached at rajuadagale13@gmail.com

Pramodini Naik

She is a Research Officer in BARTI, Pune and also a PhD candidate at TISS, Mumbai. Her interest lies in studying and working on the question of discrimination.

Keywords: Caste, Culture, Discrimination, Socio-Economic Backwardness, Social Exclusion.

Understanding ethnic identities in urban spaces in India

The ethnic identity of an individual is a chief characteristic in determining her or his belongingness to parts of urban space in a society. Various studies show how Indians have internalised this identity for themselves as well as for others, and have experienced some sort of discrimination and/or advantage based on their ethnic group and identity; in explicit forms like document verification and obtaining a visa, or in much more implicit forms like rented accommodation or in entrance to gated communities. Moreover, this identity for some people further pushes them into what is known as a 'ghetto condition', coming out of which is an immense task not only due to economic reasons, but due to the culmination of social and cultural reasons piled up on the economic factor. The concept of ghettos, which is primarily theorised with reference to European and American societies, is also widely prevalent in India. What makes the current discourse even more interesting is that living in ghettos in India is not restricted to the lower castes only. Such urban spaces which are basically formed as a result of unequal attitude of the larger society also cater to religious and regional minorities as well.

Shreya Urvashi

The author is an MPhil scholar at Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai. Her research areas include sociology of identity and politics, and higher education. She can be reached at shreyaurvashi@gmail.com

Keywords: Ethnicity, Minority, Urban, India

Artisanal and small-scale gold mining in Colombia

Billions regard noise as a by-product of civic life and modernising activities. But some sounds have historically informed intellectual and spiritual formations, marking the ethos of individuals as much as societies. Presently, geographers endeavour to show that the spaces people inhabit are yet crucial to politics and power, and the noise of modernising activities fills these spaces. They are replete with ‘media ‘that, when combined with various geographies, make for manifold ‘unanticipated consequences.’ Such consequences largely go uninterrogated because of a predominant fixation on the intended ones. Those oppressed by the unanticipated consequences of modernising activities grow increasingly invisible and marginalised. The ensuing disparity reverberates throughout geographies vital to power and politics. Noise is especially common to everyday life for millions of marginalised mining stakeholders who exemplify the coincidence of noise and civic identity construction. This paper explores the socio-technical realities that inform noise – the audible experience of the unanticipated consequences of modernising activities – in communities where noise galvanises the marginalised.

Mateo S. Pimentel

The author pursues a PhD in Human and Social Dimensions of Science and Technology at Arizona State University; is co-author of a forthcomingbook on capitalism (Routledge 2018); and is deeply indebted to Oscar Jaime Restrepo Baena and the National University of Colombia – Medellin for having inspiredthis work.

Keywords: Colombia, goldmining, mercury, pollution, socio-technical activities, modernisation, maternity, noise

Religion, caste and urbanism in India

Religion and urbanism is a new line of research for India. So far we have only two systematic books on this subject. The question of ancient urbanism and its relation to religion is another less researched subject in India; however we have many studies on Religion Caste and urbanism separately. Religious prescriptions of purity and pollution – along with the caste identities, caste hierarchies, and identity politics – had been controlling the social relations in the rural India. A similar pattern with slight difference can be seen in Indian urban spaces too, where the idea of purity and pollution has got associated with some new notions of religion and religiosity. Sociological thinkers in modern India assumed that the increasing urbanisation and industrialisation would lead to a decline of religion and caste system in urban space. However, recent studies show that after the liberalisation of Indian economy, religion has gained more significance than ever before, and caste has reinvented itself in many ways. Among the urban middle class, a new ritualistic notion of religion has become more prominent. This has a profound effect on neo-urbanism in India as the revived interest in Hindu rituals and symbols is now interacting with another very complex and classical issue of ‘caste identities’ in urban space. In this background this paper aims to explore the dynamic relationship between religion, caste, and urbanism in the light of the ancient Indian religious prescriptions regarding life in the cities.

Sanjay Jothe

The author is pursuing a PhD Scholar in Habitat Studies from the Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai. He could be reached at sanjayjothe@gmail.com

Keywords: Urbanism, Religion, Caste, Identity, Urban space, Urban Sociology

The tyranny of identity

Folklores, myths, literature, theatre and cinema form the narratives of any society. They also have the ability to shape and mould society. In this paper I analyse a few of these narratives to ascertain the identity ascribed to women in the Indian society and its propagation. It would be an understatement in the least, to say that India is a patriarchal society. A woman's identity lies only in relation to her father or her husband. Being an ancient civilisation, ancient religious traditions, myths and folklores have been used to propagate and establish a Phallic-Centred society. The Vedas, Purananas, Manusmriti and other Hindu scriptures also state the same hierarchy associated in the man-woman relationship. Since these scriptures and their knowledge remained in the confines of the Brahmin community for centuries, the propagation of the religion and its values has been done through myths and tales. In this paper, I investigate  some of the myths, proverbs and folktales from Indian context. Here I examine and analyse the inherent man-woman relationship in these folktales in light of Hindu religion and the current state of gender relations

Abigail Shannon Kellogg

Abigail Shannon Kellogg, an alumnus of St. Stephen's College, has been a student of Philosophy. Having worked in the social sector for a few years, she understands the social-political climate of India. Her core focus is on discrimination, exclusion, sexuality, identity and gender concerns. She could be contacted at abishann91@gmail.com

Keywords: Gender Identity, Sexuality, Manusmriti, Folktales, Myths, Hinduism

Section 2 - Special Article

Women’s empowerment: Perception of Dalit women

This paper is based on the experience of Dalit women in the process of empowerment. Dalit women are socially, economically, and politically disadvantaged in Indian society. Caste is a significant factor which determines the process of empowerment. This paper explores areas of development of Dalit women who are discriminated and exploited due to caste, class and gender. It examines the theories of empowerment and the challenges of Dalit women, and critically examines caste and gender relations in the context of powerlessness, poverty, social isolation, abuse, lack of access to resources and participation.

Empowerment means strengthening the capacities of individual and group, thereby transforming it into the   development process. It encourages women to gain skill and capacities that allow them to overcome obstacles in life and improved the socio-economic and political status in society. Theories of empowerment include participation process with focus on eliminating the gender inequality. It is called as development approach.

The process of social development is to bring people into the mainstream. It is all about the well being of every individual and community irrespective of caste, class, gender, religion and languages. It helps to remove the barriers in society so that people can live a life with respect and dignity. This paper seriously looks into the field reality and self perception of Dalit women about their own empowerment in relation of caste.   

Sheetal Dinkar Kamble

The author is a research scholar at Tata Institute of Social sciences, Mumbai. She has more than seven years of field experiences on Dalit women issues of caste, class, gender, based-violence and discrimination. She could be contacted at sheetal28kamble@gmail.com

Keywords: Empowerment, Perception, Dalit Women, Caste, Satara

Section 3 - Document

Against the frenzy of religions

Nine years after one of the worst communal violence India has witnessed, the victims in Kandhamal still wait for justice. Despite the mainstream Indian society and media trying hard to erase the memories of the gruesome inhuman violence, it remains fresh in the minds of those who were victimised due the communal frenzy in Kandhamal. Odisha has for long been witnessing a series of violent attacks on minority communities, particularly the Christians and more specifically those hailing from Adibasi and Dalit background.

Susmita Pradhan

The author is a social worker working with young adolescent girls. She has been a victim of Kandhamal riots against Christians in 2008. She could be reached at susmitapradhan71@gmail.com

Section 4 - Review

Fabricated!

Direction: K.P Sasi
Camera: Neethu & Deepu
Edited by: B.Ajithkumar & Shahil Shaz,
Asst. Director: Mustafa Desamangalam/ M. Jisha
Title Music: P.K Sajeev

Fabricated is a 90-minutes documentary film on the cases of Abdul Nasar Maudany and others. This is a story of the post-independent India. Every year when this country celebrates freedom, there are thousands of innocent prisoners in Indian jails, waiting for justice without even a trial. Abdul Nasar Maudany is one such victim. As a Muslim spiritual leader, he reacted strongly against the demolition of Babari Masjid in 1992. His house was attacked and he spent nine and a half years in jail. All the charges against him were proven false and even the judgment makes it clear that the case was fabricated. He was released without any compensation. No trial was conducted on those who were responsible for such fabrication. But soon, he was framed for another series of charges and has been waiting for justice in Bangalore Parappana Agrahara jail

Natasha Khan

Natasha Khan is a final year law student in Guru Ghasidas Central University, Bilaspur. Her interest lies in understanding the various socio-political dynamics in contemporary society. She could be reached at natashaakhan999@gmail.com

Nilanjani Tandon

Nilanjani Tandon is a practicing lawyer, currently based in Delhi. She holds a Master in Law from Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar. She could be reached at nilanjanitandon@gmail.com

Festival Review Dussehra Diwali Versus Vijyadashmi and Deepdan Utsava

Dashahra and Diwali are two of the Hindu festivals in India, while during the same period, the Buddhists celebrate Vijayadashmi and Deepdan-utsava respectively on the same days. The Brahminist scholars claim that on the day of Dussehra, Rama, one of their Avatars, had assassinated the King Ravana who had abducted his wife Sita. As per the legend, Shrupnakha, the sister of King Ravana had made offer of marriage to Ram and Laxman. In an ultimate response, the duo cut her nose, ears and the breasts. In retaliation, the King took away Sita and kept her in ‘safe custody’ in Ashokavan. They claim that on the day of Dussehra the ‘evil’ Ravana was killed by the ‘good’ Ram.

Kuldip Kumar

The author is a former Bank officer, currently based in Hisar (Haryana). He holds a degree in Law from Panjab University Chandigarh. He is passionate about reading and writing the real ancient history. He has three books published while three others is in the pipeline. He could be contacted at jaikuldip@gmail.com